Wednesday, April 20, 2011

Suppressing dissent in Singapore: A Chronology, March 2006-2011

See also: Suppressing dissent in Singapore: A Chronology 1994-2011 (here) for events in 1994-Feb 2006


Mar 2006: Dr Chee Soon Juan is convicted of contempt of court for a statement he made at the above bankruptcy hearing in which he alleged that the judiciary is not independent and fair, especially in cases involving opposition politicians. In sentencing Chee to one day in jail and a $6,000 fine, Justice Lai Siu Chiu says that "this is probably one of the worst cases that has come before the court for scandalizing the judiciary." Chee refuses to pay the fine and serves eight days in prison.

Mar 2006: Facing debts of more than $500,000 owed to government leaders, veteran opposition leader JB Jeyaretnam's attempt to annul his bankruptcy ahead of general elections is crushed when the court ordered him to pay additional costs. This is the second consecutive elections in which he has been disqualified.

Mar 2006: In a letter to the Straits Times, the Home Affairs Ministry says that "former communists" cannot be allowed to rewrite history. It is in response to a public talk given a month earlier by two former political prisoners, Tan Jing Quee and Michael Fernandez, who were detained under the ISA during the 1960s for alleged involvement with communists, charges that both men have denied. In the public talk, both described mental and physical torture while under detention.

Apr 2006: Speaking in Parliament, Senior Minister of State Balaji Sadasivan issues a warning that anyone using the internet to "persistently propagate, promote or circulate political issues" about Singapore during election periods will be breaking the law. Following the Singapore Democratic Party's launch of their podcast a year before, the Minister says the new rules would also apply to podcasting.

Apr 2006: Customs officers at the airport impound the passport of Dr Chee Soon Juan as he was leaving for a democracy forum in Turkey. Under the law, bankrupts need to obtain permission for overseas travel. Chee says he had complied with an earlier demand from bankruptcy officials to submit a breakdown of his monthly income and expenditure so that it could determine how much he could pay MM Lee Kuan Yew and SM Goh Chok Tong for defamation damages of $500,000.

Apr/May 2006 (General Elections): In the lead up to the elections, the Government announced a $2.6 billion "progress package" cash handouts to the electorate. A month before hustings, a blanket ban on political podcasts was imposed. Elections were announced three weeks prior to polling date, and campaigning period are again limited to 9 days.

One day after announcement of the election date, lawyers for PM Lee Hsien Loong and MM Lee Kuan Yew issue a letter of demand to the Singapore Democratic Party over an article in the party's newsletter that drew parallels between the financial scandals of charity foundation NKF and the government. The Lees allege that the article characterised them as "dishonest and unfit for office." Nine out of the eleven executive members of SDP apologise and pay damages.

Two days before nomination, the Elections Department warn SDP that it will take action if they did not remove audio files and podcasts from the party's website. Within hours, SDP suspends its podcast service.

As an undischarged bankrupt, Dr Chee Soon Juan is prohibited from campaigning. At his party's rallies, police physically prevent him from getting on stage.

A photo, taken by a blogger, of a teeming crowd at a Workers' Party rally, spreads widely on the internet, forcing the hitherto reluctant print media to publish pictures of crowds at opposition rallies.

While addressing the crowd at a PAP rally, PM Lee Hsien Loong is quoted by the press, "Suppose you had 10, 15, 20 opposition members in Parliament. Instead of spending my time thinking what is the right policy for Singapore, I'm going to spend all my time thinking what's the right way to fix them, to buy my supporters' votes."

The media coverage of the campaign is dominated by the PAP's attack on Workers' Party candidate James Gomez, who on nomination day chastised an election official for mishandling a form. Gomez later issues a public apology. But while leaving the country for work overseas after results were announced, he is arrested and interrogated for alleged offences of criminal intimidation and providing false information. He is eventually given a stern warning in lieu of prosecution.

The PAP win 66.6% of the votes, capturing 82 out of 84 seats, with 37 seats uncontested by the opposition.

In its annual report, Freedom House states that "Singapore is not an electoral democracy.. The ruling PAP dominates the political process, using a variety of methods to handicap opposition parties.. And the country lacks a structurally independent election authority."

May 2006: SDP member Chee Siok Chin files a summons in the High Court asking to declare the election results void. In her affidavit, Chee alleges that the PAP had used cash to induce voters and hence secure electoral victory. Chee also wants the High Court to declare the ban on podcasting during election period as unconstitutional. Judge Andrew Phang dismisses her application.

Jun 2006: PM Lee Hsien Loong and MM Lee Kuan Yew apply for summary judgment in their defamation suits against Dr Chee Soon Juan and his sister Chee Siok Chin. Both had refused to apologise to demands over the allegedly defamatory article in SDP's party newsletter. The duo submit 14 witnesses to the courts in their defence.

Jun 2006: Fresh charges are brought against Dr Chee Soon Juan and two SDP members for unlicensed public speech during the lead-up to the elections. Chee is slapped with eight counts of violating the Public Entertainments and Meetings Act, which states that "any lecture, talk, address, debate or discussion" requires a licence and violators are liable to a fine of up to $10,000.

Jun 2006 : In an official visit to New Zealand, PM Lee Hsien Loong tells reporters that the Singapore government has "no reason to want to restrict any democratic or political rights of opposition politicians or leaders." He adds, "You can make speeches, you can publish articles, you can put things up on the internet, you can speak. We have a speakers' corner which is highly underutilized. And contest elections."

Jun 2006: A 21-year-old blogger receives a stern warning but escapes possible imprisonment after posting cartoons mocking Jesus Christ on his blog. He was investigated by the police under the Sedition Act, which carries a prison term of up to three years or a $5,000 fine.

Jul 2006: A regular column by a well-known blogger "Mr Brown" is suspended after the Government criticised his piece about the high cost of living. K. Bhavani, a press secretary to the Ministry of Information, Communications and the Arts, writes to the paper stating that "it is not the role of journalists or newspapers in Singapore to champion issues, or campaign for or against the government.. If a columnist undermines the government's standing with the electorate, then he is no longer a constructive critic, but a partisan player in politics."

Jul 2006: The police announces that in the interest of security, all outdoor demonstrations will be banned during the upcoming IMF-World Bank Meetings in Singapore. Instead, an indoor venue will be set up for registered civil groups.

Aug 2006 : The Government gazettes five international publications - Far Eastern Economic Review, International Herald Tribune, Financial Times, Newsweek and TIME magazines - as "offshore newspapers". Under section 23(3) of the Newspapers and Printing Presses Act, offshore newspapers are required to appoint a legal representative in Singapore. They will also have to post a security deposit of $200,000. The Government calls it "a privilege, and not a right, for foreign newspapers to circulate in Singapore. They do so as foreign observers of the local scene and should not interfere in the domestic politics of Singapore."

Aug 2006: An application by local theatre company Agni Kootthu to stage a play is first approved, and then rejected by authorities on the same day. The Media Development Authority states that the play "undermines the values underpinning Singapore's multi-racial, multi-religious society, and portrays Muslims in a negative light."

Aug 2006: PM Lee Hsien Loong and MM Lee Kuan Yew files a defamation suit against the publisher and editor of the Far Eastern Economic Review for an article published in July under the headline 'Singapore's Martyr: Chee Soon Juan', in which Chee criticised the government's handling of the NKF charity scandal.

Aug 2006: After 15 months of investigation, filmmaker Martyn See is given a "stern warning" in lieu of prosecution for making a documentary about Dr Chee Soon Juan, His film, 'Singapore Rebel,' remains banned.

Aug 2006: A group of international lawyers write to MM Lee Kuan Yew to urge the Government to stop the prosecution of the Falungong spiritual group. Police earlier charged nine followers for participating in an illegal assembly on Orchard Road. The lawyers ask the Government "to show true evidence that it is a legitimate democracy and an independent country that is not subject to the requirements of the Chinese government."

Sept 2006: In a summary judgment held in chambers, Judge Belinda Ang awards the defamation case involving the SDP's article to PM Lee Hsien Loong and MM Lee Kuan Yew. The matter is conducted without the legal representation for defendants Dr Chee Soon Juan and Chee Siok Chin, as their lawyer M. Ravi had fallen ill.

Sept 2006: Three animal rights advocates, two women and a man, are deported after police say they responded to a caller who found them "behaving suspiciously." The trio from the People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, or PETA, say in a statement that they had planned to stand outside a local KFC restaurant, each wearing nothing but a banner reading "Naked Truth: KFC Tortures Chicks."

Sept 2006 (IMF-World Bank Meetings): 21-year-old artist Seelan Palay is arrested by police over a plan to distribute flyers ahead of the IMF-World Bank meetings. Palay had earlier initiated an online campaign to capture photos of "400 Frowns" in protest against government policies.

A group distributing flyers outside Raffles City Shopping Centre urging people to attend a protest rally are stopped by police, who also seize the material. Among them in the group is Dr Chee Soon Juan.

The Government bans the entry of 19 foreign civil activists on grounds of security, invoking a rare rebuke from the IMF-World Bank, who says that Singapore violated the terms of its agreement to host the event. Indian activist Wilfred D'Costa alleges he was questioned, detained and deported back to India by Singapore authorities while en route to attend a parallel protest on the island of Batam. Civil groups claim the Singapore government deported 48 activists from 16 countries.

The police cordon off an area for protest in the Suntec City Convention, which included numerous regulations. Accredited protesters can shout but are not allowed to use bullhorns or other sound amplifiers to disrupt proceedings. Meanwhile, 10,000 security personnel and several road blockades line the shopping plaza outside. Police say tough security measures are necessary because Singapore is a high-profile "terrorist" target.

At a forum attended by international delegates, MM Lee Kuan Yew acknowledges that there is growing support for opposition parties among Singapore's voters, but the office of the elected presidency has been put in place to prevent a profligate opposition government from touching the national monetary reserves. "Without the elected president and if there is a freak result, within two or three years, the army would have to come in and stop it," Lee adds.

A small group of local protesters, led by Dr Chee Soon Juan, who planned to stage a pro-democracy march from Speakers' Corner to Parliament House, is prevented from doing so by the police who warns them if they proceeded it would be an illegal assembly. A three day stand-off ensues, after which Chee reads out a statement that "the world now knows the extent of the repression in Singapore, and hopefully this will translate into pressure on the Singapore government to reform the system."

Sept 2006: Jaya Gibson, a British journalist and practitioner of the Falungong, is deported by authorities. Gibson was returning to Singapore where he was assigned to cover the trial of two Falungong practitioners, who has been accused in connection with a banner they displayed outside the Chinese embassy.

Oct 2006: The Government bans the sale and distribution of the Far Eastern Economic Review after the publication failed to appoint a legal representative in Singapore and pay a $200,000 bond. Its editor Hugo Restall says that "the timing and substance of this move were in our view no coincidence. It followed hard upon our refusal to apologize and pay damages."

Oct 2006: Human rights lawyer M. Ravi is suspended from practice for a year due to rude behaviour to a district judge in 2003. "I hope that.. one year later, when you come back, you will become a lawyer that we want to see in this court," says Chief Justice Chan Sek Keong in pronouncing the suspension.

Nov 2006: The court sentences a 16 year old male to 24 strokes of the cane. Maria Dass Pandi Rasan was convicted of robbing two taxi drivers.

Nov 2006 : Dr Chee Soon Juan is convicted and jailed for five weeks after refusing a pay a fine of $5,000 for speaking without a permit during the run-up to the elections. Also jailed are Yap Keng Ho and Gandhi Ambalam, who refuse to pay fines of $2,000 and $3,000 respectively. Seven similar charges remain pending for Chee and Yap.

Dec 2006 : Dr Chee Soon Juan is referred to Changi General Hospital after the medical doctor at the Queenstown Remand Prison reportedly found traces of blood in his urine. His sister Chee Siok Chin says that the prison food had made him feel "nauseous and throw up." A police statement deny any ill-treatment, stating that Chee had refused to eat after five days, and had "demanded to be treated differently from other inmates".

Dec 2006: Falungong practitioners Ng Chye Huay and Erh Boon Tiong are convicted for protesting outside the Chinese Embassy. On refusing to pay fines, they are jailed 15 days and 10 days respectively. Erh's wife later reportedly expresses concern about her husband's specially marked food tray and his state of health.

Dec 2006: A group of activists commemorate Human Rights Day by staging a 'Freedom Walk' from Speakers' Corner to Queenstown Remand Prison. Press reports note that the march went largely unheeded by the Christmas shopping crowd on Orchard Road, and that police in plain clothes trailed the group and filmed them with video cameras. The group included the wife and children of Dr Chee Soon Juan.

Dec 2006: After his release, Dr Chee Soon Juan rebuts on SDP's website 13 points raised by Home Affairs Ministry, which had said that all proper procedures were accorded to him whilst in prison, and that markings on food trays were "normal Prisons procedure to record the food consumption of inmates under close watch." Chee replies that his trays were not marked during his previous prison terms, and that when queried, the prison Superintendent had denied any such markings unless the food was vegetarian. The Ministry has not replied to Chee's rebuttals.

Dec 2006: A book of Asian celebrity photographs by Singapore-born photographer Leslie Kee is banned by the Media Development Authority on grounds that the book features full frontal male nudity, revealing genitals and pubic hair.

Jan 2007: Former Solicitor-General and exiled dissident Francis T. Seow publishes a book entitled 'Beyond Suspicion: The Singapore Judiciary' under Yale Publications. In an earlier article, he cited that the per annum salary of Singapore's Chief Justice was more than the combined stipends of the Lord Chancellor of England, the Chief Justices of the United States, Canada and Australia. He added that "the prime minister uses the courts as a legal weapon to intimidate, bankrupt or cripple the political opposition, and ventilate his political agenda."

Jan 2007: The British High Court absolves English neurologist Simon Shorvon of charges of professional misconduct while in Singapore. In 2003, Shorvon was the lead researcher at the Singapore's National Neurology Institute but left Singapore after the Singapore Medical Council found him to be in breach of ethical guidelines. The charges against Shorvon are filed by Dr Lee Wei Ling, who succeeds Shorvon in his post. Dr Lee is the daughter of MM Lee Kuan Yew and sister of PM Lee Hsien Loong.

Jan 2007: Despite international clemency appeals, the Government hangs two African men on charges of drug trafficking. Iwuchukwu Amara Tochi, a 21-year-old Nigerian man, and Okeke Nelson Malachy, a 35-year-old stateless man, are hanged in Changi Prison. In his judgement, Justice Kan Ting Chiu notes that "there was no direct evidence that [Amara Tochi] knew the capsules contained diamorphine." Notwithstanding, Kan pronounces that "Tochi should have known and therefore he is guilty".

Feb 2007: Pop star Madonna's 'The Confessions Tour: Live from London DVD', which features the singer performing a song while suspended from a giant mirrored cross, is banned by the Media Development Authority.

Feb 2007: The High Court refuses an application by the Far Eastern Economic Review to throw out the defamation case filed against them by PM Lee Hsien Loong and MM Lee Kuan Yew. The court also disallows FEER's lawyer, Australian Tim Robertson, permission to sit in on the hearing because Robertson had allegedly made comments critical of Singapore's decision to hang a convicted drug trafficker.

Feb 2007: Dr Chee Soon Juan is found guilty and fined $4,000 of trying to leave the country without permission in April 2006. Chee says he will appeal the decision.

Feb 2007: The Ministry of Information, Communications and the Arts tells an art gallery that it could not display a four-meter high painting of a nude woman in the public atrium of the ministry's building. Nude or erotic artworks "should not be displayed in venues which are easily accessible to general audiences, including children and youths," says the Ministry.

Mar 2007: The Consumer Association of Singapore (CASE) holds a public rally near Parliament House to commemorate World Consumer Rights Day. Photos on their website show dozens of participants holding placards in a "nation-wide march" that feature "thousands of participants". It is not known if a police permit had been obtained. CASE is helmed by a PAP Member of Parliament and the rally includes a ministerial guest-of-honour.

Apr 2007: Deputy Prime Minister Wong Kan Seng tells parliament that 39 people are being detained without trial under the ISA for alleged involvement in terrorism and espionage. Wong adds that 10 of them are members of the Jemaah Islamiyah group who were arrested in December 2001.

Apr 2007: 'Zahari's 17 Years', an interview film chronicling the experiences of former political detainee Said Zahari, is banned by the Minister of Information, Communication and the Arts, who says that "the government will not allow people who had posed a security threat to the country in the past, to exploit the use of films to purvey a false and distorted portrayal of their past actions and detention by the Government." The film is directed by Martyn See, whose first film 'Singapore Rebel' remains banned.

Apr 2007: In a dialogue with the Young PAP, MM Lee Kuan Yew expresses his views on censorship, "We have created a society which is totally educated. You are all able to go on the Internet. So all this censorship and so on makes no sense to me. We cannot stop this. If we stop this, we stop the progress. We are marginalised."

Apr 2007: Authorities censor two films at the Singapore International Film Festival because of their explicit sexual content and religious symbols. Danish animated film Princess is withdrawn after the Media Development Authority demanded the deletion of "religiously offensive" scene. Local film Solos is censored because of "explicit homosexual lovemaking scenes including scenes of oral sex and threesome sex", says MDA.

Apr 2007: In the same week that the Government announces pay hikes for its ministers, the police ban seven foreigners, including members of the European Parliament, from speaking at a public forum organised by the Singapore Democractic Party. Danish politician Anders Samuelson alleges he was threatened with arrest. The forum proceeds with speakers from the SDP, while the foreign delegation remain silent. In a statement, the Government says that "Singapore's politics are reserved for Singaporeans."

Apr 2007: Two days before May Day, Dr Chee Soon Juan and his sister Chee Siok Chin embark on a 150 kilometres walk around the island to raise awareness of poverty and underpaid workers in Singapore. A blogger reports the presence of plainclothes police during the walk but there are no arrests.

May 2007: After making payments of $233,255 to the Official Assignee, veteran opposition leader JB Jeyaretnam is given a discharge from bankruptcy. He is therefore eligible to resume his profession as a lawyer, travel abroad without permission, and contest the next election. "I intend to form a new party to give Singaporeans a chance again," says the 81-year-old.

May 2007: The SDP reports that police have called up 15 people over two cases of illegal public assembly and procession during the IMF-World Bank protest at Speakers' Corner and the 'Freedom Walk' to Queenstown Remand Prison.

Jun 2007: The Government announces the arrests of five suspected Islamic militants under the ISA in late 2006, including 28-year-old law lecturer Abdul Basheer, whom the government describes as "self-radicalised (whose) views were shaped by the radical discourse that he avidly looked up on the internet." The statement also announces the release of five detainees.

Jun 2007: Renowned playwright Alfian Sa'at is dismissed from his relief teaching job by the Ministry of Education, who says he does not "best meet the organisation's requirements". Sa'at says the dismissal was not motivated by poor performance, but could be a result of his writings which touched on socially and politically sensitive issues such as homosexuality and Singapore-Malaysia bilateral relations.

Jun 2007: Far Eastern Economic Review's application to use a British Queen's Counsel to represent the magazine is rejected by Judge Tan Lee Meng, who rules the defamation suit filed against FEER by government leaders is "not sufficiently difficult and complex" and will not require the services of a Queen's Counsel.

Jun 2007 : Five practitioners of the Falungong are fined $1,000 each for an illegal public assembly in an Orchard Road underpass in 2005. They refuse to pay the fine and are jailed 7 days in default.

Jul 2007: Former Chief Justice Yong Pung How is appointed a director of the Singapore Press Holdings, whose chairman is former Deputy Prime Minister Dr Tony Tan.

Jul 2007: Immigration officers at the Woodlands Checkpoint stop a vehicle driven by Francis Yong, vice-chairman of the the SDP, and seize a poster of PM Lee Hsien Loong holding aloft his salary. Yong is later called up by the police who warn that "bringing in or displaying the photo of the person with his salary is against the law."

Aug 2007: A permit application by the Workers' Party to hold a cycling event for its 50th anniversary is rejected by the police. Senior Minister of State for Law and Home Affairs Ho Peng Kee tells parliament that "the East Coast Park is a recreational park (and) not meant to be used by a political party to promote its cause." He adds, "You may be well-behaving but there may be other people whom you come across when you cycle who may stop you, may want to debate with you and that may attract a crowd, and therefore will result in problems the police want to avoid."

Aug 2007: A fortnight-long gay pride festival has ten of its items banned. After disallowing a photo exhibition featuring gay kissing, the Media Development Authority bans a reading of a story on grounds that the content "had gone beyond good taste and decency in taking a disparaging and disrespectful view of public officers." A licence to hold a gay rights forum featuring a retired Canadian law professor is cancelled by the police who said the event was "deemed contrary to public interest." Plainclothes police show up alongside the Singapore River to tell the organisers of 'Pink Run' that it would constitute an illegal assembly if they went ahead with the event. About 40 joggers who had turned up elected to jog separately instead, while police film them using video cameras.

Aug 2007: The court declare SDP members Chee Siok Chin, Monica Kumar and supporter Yap Keng Ho bankrupts after they failed to to pay about $24,000 in legal costs which was incurred after the trio challenged a move by police to disperse a peaceful protest outside the CPF Building in 2005.

Aug 2007: Parliament passes a law that requires prior written approval from a licensing officer before any private investigative work can be carried out on political figures.

Sep 2007: Dr Chee Soon Juan begins serving a three-week prison term after he failed to pay a $4,000 fine upon conviction for attempting to leave the country without permission. "It's ridiculous that they even flagged a fine on a bankrupt," says his sister Chee Siok Chin. Chee was charged in 2006 after being stopped at the airport from attending a democracy forum in Turkey.

Sep 2007: Police reject a permit by the Substation Arts Centre to hold an outdoor flea market near the Fort Canning Tunnel that would have included booths run by 19 civil society groups, including Cat Welfare Society, Vegetarian Society and two gay support groups. The event is subsequently held without the outdoor booths and the civil society groups.

Sep 2007: Five activists stage a walk from Speakers' Corner to Queenstown Remand Prison to mark the first anniversary of the IMF-World Bank protest of 2006. The SDP website reports that group "were accosted by a group of police who made a feeble attempt to physically block us from moving ahead."

Sep 2007: In its first major penal code amendments in 22 years, the Government amends the law to allow oral and anal sex in private between consenting heterosexual adults, while gay sex remains banned. The revised penal code also stipulates that an assembly of five or more people will be illegal if the group's common objective is to commit "any offence", broadening the definition from mischief and trespass.

Sep 2007: Days after his release from prison, Dr Chee Soon Juan and two party colleagues station themselves outside the Myanmar Embassy to collect signatures in protest against the military junta's bloody crackdown of protesters in Myanmar. Despite initial warnings from the police that it would constitute an illegal assembly, online news website The Online Citizen reports that by evening, about 400 people, mainly Burmese expatriates, have turned up to sign the petition. There are no reports of arrests.

Oct 2007: A newswire reports that a group of expatriate women living in Singapore had worn red T-shirts in a public gathering as part of a global action to support the democracy movement in Myanmar. About ten Caucasian women were pictured standing on Waterloo Street listening to a speech. There are no reports of police investigation.

Oct 2007: The police reject an application by the SDP to march from the Istana to the Myanmar Embassy in protest against the violent crackdown in Myanmar.

Oct 2007: A group of four protesters, led by Dr Chee Soon Juan, is swiftly arrested by police on Orchard Road, across the road from the Istana. The four were holding placards with the words "No Deals, No Arms, with the Junta" and "Free Burma" in protest against the Government's trade ties with the military junta.

Oct 2007: Police ban an outdoor peace concert in support of the people of Myanmar. The three-hour event was co-organized by the Substation Arts Centre and Timbre Bar, who are advised by police to hold the concert indoors. "Political and cause-related events are assessed to have a higher potential to stir emotions and controversy (and) may lead to law and order concerns," say the police.

Oct 2007: One week after his arrest, Dr Chee Soon Juan is back on the same spot opposite the Istana to stage a one-man protest against the Government's arms deals with Myanmar. Lasting five days, the protest is not stopped by authorities.

Oct 2007: The Financial Times apologises and agrees to pay unspecified damages to PM Lee Hsien Loong and his father MM Lee Kuan Yew over an article which implied the elder Lee was instrumental in securing his son's appointment as prime minister. "We admit and acknowledge that these allegations are false and completely without foundation," says the paper.

Oct 2007: The International Bar Association's decision to host its annual meeting in Singapore provokes opposition from critics. Amnesty International calls on the 3,000 delegates of IBA to condemn the misuse of the law in Singapore. A newswire report notes that Dr Chee Soon Juan drew applause at the meeting when he spoke about his imprisonment, and quoted Subhas Anandan, the president of the Association of Criminal Lawyers, as saying that he would "represent murderers, thieves and even terror suspects but would avoid acting for dissidents." In an earlier speech, Law Minister Professor Jayakumar said that "internationally our legal system and judiciary have been held in high esteem by the World Bank."

Nov 2007: Police reject an application to hold a protest outside the Shangri-la Hotel where delegates of the Asean Summit are scheduled to meet. The SDP, which submitted the application, say the protest was intended to call on Asean member states to take concrete measures to promote democracy in the region.

Nov 2007 (Asean Summit Meetings): In defiance of a ban, three international students stage a short march in protest against Asean leaders' "tacit" approval of Myanmar's fatal crackdown on demonstrations. A newswire reported that the three were followed by 19 reporters and photographers in the area of the Asean Summit, which was protected by 1,000 armed police and soldiers. "A lot of people wanted to come, but they were afraid of the repercussions," says Daniel Babiak, a student from the National University of Singapore, which had earlier warned the students about Singapore's laws.

Four Singaporeans belonging to a group called Sg Human Rights are barred by police from entering the Shangri-la Hotel. They had planned to deliver a greeting card bearing the image of Myanmar opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi. The card is eventually handed to a representative of the Asean Secretariat.

En route to the Shangri-la Hotel, two members of the SDP are stopped and bundled into an unmarked police vehicle. Chee Siok Chin and John Tan are then driven around for 40 minutes before police release them on Orchard Road. Tan's video recording of the incident is posted on YouTube. No charges are filed.

In the biggest public protest in recent memory, about 50 Myanmar expatriates gather on Orchard Road and hold a large banner that read: "Listen to Burma's Desires, Don't Follow Junta's Order". A protest spokesperson tells the assembled reporters that the show of force was to put pressure on Asean and Myanmar to effect the immediate release of jailed opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi. The brief protest disperses without incident after police warned protesters they could be in violation of the law.

Dec 2007: In a statement, Amnesty International says a total of 22 members of Jehovah's Witness are understood to be detained in Armed Forces detention barracks, all as conscientious objectors. AI adds that they regarded all such detainees as prisoners of conscience. In 1972, the Government banned the religion on the grounds that it was prejudicial to public welfare and order.

Dec 2007: The UN General Assembly passes a resolution calling for a moratorium on the death penalty, with the ultimate aim of abolishing capital punishment. It votes 104 in favour and 54 against with 29 abstentions. Opposition to the resolution is led by Singapore, who accuses countries in favour of the moratorium of trying to impose their values on the rest of the world.

Jan 2008: Artist Seelan Palay completes a solo five-day hunger strike outside the Malaysian High Commission in protest against the Malaysian Government's detention of five leaders of ethnic Indian group Hindraf. Wearing a placard around his neck that said, "Give them fair trial," Palay was briefly warned by police that he would be flouting the law. No arrest or charges are filed.

Jan 2008: A choir that planned to sing a list of complaints about life in Singapore cancels its performances after the Media Development Authority banned its foreign members from singing. The 60-member Complaints Choir, a concept that originated from two Finnish artists, was originally licensed to perform at Speakers' Corner but authorities say the licence is conditional because the lyrics touch on "domestic affairs", and it preferred only Singaporeans take part. The performance is eventually moved indoors and a video recording uploaded on YouTube.

Jan 2008: Police reject an application by the SDP to protest outside Parliament House to mark World Consumer Rights Day.

Mar 2008: About 20 Singaporeans, including young children, protest outside Parliament House against the rising cost of living. Led by Dr Chee Soon Juan, the protesters, carrying placards and wearing red T-shirts that say "Tak Boleh Tahan", proceed to stage a procession towards the Istana, but are arrested outside a shopping mall. Video footages show police dragging the protesters by force from an interlocked group and bundling them into vehicles. 18 of them are later charged with participating in an illegal assembly and public procession without a permit.

Apr 2008: Discharged from bankruptcy, JB Jeyaretnam announces the formation of the Reform Party. "We are not allowed to exercise the fundamental rights given to us in the Constitution," says Jeyaretnam, who promised a party based on human and political rights, and whose objective was to effect "a complete and thorough change in the way this country is run."

Apr 2008: Hundreds of Myanmar nationals, many wearing red t-shirts with the word "No", gather outside the Myanmar embassy to cast referendum votes on the country's proposed new constitution. Plainclothes police are seen on standby but there are no reported arrests.

May 2008: Five Singaporeans, holding aloft a series of banners with messages such as "Censored News Is No News" and "Newspapers and Printing Presses Act = Repression", stand outside the Singapore Press Holdings building to mark World Press Freedom Day. There are no reported arrests.

May 2008: Officers from the Board of Film Censors, assisted by the police, enter the Peninsula-Excelsior Hotel to seize a film which was undergoing its private premiere. Witnessed by about a hundred guests including foreign diplomats, organisers hand the DVD copy of the film to officials. Entitled "One Nation Under Lee", the documentary was made by artist Seelan Palay and its premiere hosted by the SDP. Palay is currently under investigation for exhibition of a film without licence.

May 2008: An unnamed 24-year-old blogger is arrested in his home after police received two complaints about allegedly racist comments posted on his blog. The New Paper reports that his comments were directed at a fellow passenger on the MRT. A police statement says they "take a serious view of such irresponsible blog postings in a multi-racial society like Singapore and will expend all efforts in tracking the perpetrators."

May 2008: PM Lee Hsien Loong and MM Lee Kuan Yew are cross-examined by Dr Chee Soon Juan and his sister Chee Siok Chin in a hearing to determine defamation damages awarded to the Lees. Newswires report that the Chees, who were representing themselves, had most of the questions objected to by Lee's lawyer Davinder Singh on the grounds of irrelevance and upheld by the judge, who had earlier granted an application by Singh to impose a time limit on the cross-examination. The case marks the first time any PAP leader is cross-examined by a political opponent in open court.

Jun 2008: In a separate case, Dr Chee Soon Juan and activist Yap Keng Ho are found guilty by the Subordinate Court of speaking without a permit during the run-up to the 2006 elections. Chee is fined $5,000, or five weeks in jail in default, while Yap is fined $2,000, or 10 days in jail. Bails of $5,000 are granted for both men, who face six similar charges.

Jun 2008: US lawyer and blogger Gopalan Nair is arrested in his hotel by plainclothes police officers and held in a police lock up for five days. The 59-year-old former Singapore citizen had written on his blog that the judge in the Lees' defamation case against the Chee siblings was "throughout prostituting herself during the entire proceedings, by being nothing more than an employee of Mr Lee Kuan Yew and his son and carrying out their orders," and further challenged Lee to sue him for his remarks. Nair is charged with insulting a high court judge.

Jun 2008: Dr Chee Soon Juan and Chee Siok Chin begin serving prison terms of 12 and 10 days respectively after being convicted of contempt of court over their cross-examination of PM Lee and MM Lee. Judge Belinda Ang says that such misbehaviour, if unpunished, will diminish the dignity of the court. Reform Party's leader JB Jeyaretnam appears in court as Chee's lawyer but later withdraws when Ang declines his application for more time to prepare his case. The Straits Times notes it is the stiffest sentence ever meted out for such an offence.

Jul 2008: In a 72-page report on Singapore, the human rights arm of the International Bar Association expresses concern about limitations on the freedoms of expression, assembly, and the press, and of the independence of the judiciary. "As one of the world's most successful economies, Singapore should be a leader in human rights and the rule of law, and should now have the confidence and maturity to recognise that this would be complementary, not contradictory, to its future prosperity," says the IBA.

Jul 2008: In a statement, the Law Ministry rebukes a Wall Street Journal editorial on the above IBA's report, stating that "Singapore cannot allow those who carry no responsibility for Singapore's future to dictate its political and legal systems. Singaporeans know that they have a noncorrupt government and an independent judiciary. They live in one of the top five most transparent countries in the world, with the freedom to express their views, oppose the government and take part in free and fair elections."

Jul 2008: Dr Chee Soon Juan's application to reconvene the hearing for the assessment of damages in the case involving PM Lee Kuan Yew and MM Lee Kuan Yew is rejected by Judge Belinda Ang. The basis for Chee's application was the claim by MM Lee that the president of the International Bar Association had sent a letter to the Law Society of Singapore praising the country's justice system. It turned out that no such letter existed.

Jul 2008: The Official Assignee's office rejects Chee Siok Chin's application to attend a democracy leadership programme at the Stanford University in US. As a bankrupt, Chee has to apply for permission to travel out of the country. The SDP says that she has been making regular payments to the benefit of her creditors and was granted leave on past occasions.

Aug 2008: In a statement, the Myanmar expatriate community expresses concern that many of their members who had been active in protests against the military junta's crackdown of civilians a year earlier have been denied renewal and extensions of their visas by Singapore authorities. A police spokeswoman says that "foreigners who work or live here are expected to at least respect the law and local sensitivities in Singapore." The statement from the community adds that there is no evidence that those affected has ever committed any offence in Singapore.

Aug 2008: In his National Day Rally speech, PM Lee Hsien Loong pledges more openness by relaxing the rules for political films and allowing demonstrations in Speakers' Corner. "The overall thrust of all these changes is to liberalise our society, to widen the space for expression and participation. We encourage more citizens to engage in debate, to participate in building our shared future.. If you compare today with five years ago or 10 years ago, it's much more open today."

Aug 2008: Three sets of charges - of attempting to stage an illegal procession, of assembly without a permit for distributing flyers and of unlawful assembly outside Parliament House - are filed against seven members and supporters of the SDP for activities during the the IMF-World bank meetings in 2006.

Aug 2008: In what is described as "an extraordinary move", Judge Woo Bih Li recommends to the lawyers for PM Lee Hsien Loong and MM Lee Kuan Yew to broaden the charges of their defamation suit against the Far Eastern Economic Review so as to allow for greater penalties. The Lees' lawyers duly oblige.

Aug 2008: Following the death of PAP Member of Parliament Dr Ong Chit Chung, a motion is tabled in parliament to amend the Parliamentary Elections Act to allow by-elections to be called in a Group Representation Constituency when a member vacates his seat for any reason. The move is rejected by PM Lee Hsien Loong, who reasons that "the vacancy does not affect the mandate of the government."

Sep 2008: The government eases restrictions on Speakers' Corner by allowing Singapore citizens to hold demonstrations without having to obtain a police permit. The management of the park is handed over to the Nataional Parks Board, which states that users should register with the board online, and that placards, banners, effigies and self-powered handheld amplification will be allowed. Issues of race and religion remain outlawed. "There will be no conscious monitoring," say the police. In the first month after the new ruling, 31 registrations for activities are made.

Sep 2008: US lawyer Gopalan Nair is sentenced to three months prison after being found guilty of insulting a high court judge in a blog entry. Nair tells reporters he has no regrets, "I only wrote a blog. I didn't go out and kill anybody." While in prison, he is convicted on a separate charge of contempt of court, but is let off with a warning by the judge.

Sep 2008: News portal The Online Citizen reports that the Nanyang Technological University has pulled the plug on two stories on the school's student newspaper. Both articles are reports of the Singapore Democratic Party's visit to the campus. A professor of its communications and information faculty say the stories were killed because "there was a feeling of concern over the use of student media to publicise and promote the unsolicited views of an uninvited person to the campus."

Sep 2008: Reform Party's leader JB Jeyaretnam, 82, passes away due to heart failure. In a condolence letter, PM Lee Hsien Loong says, "He sought by all means to demolish the PAP and our system of government. Unfortunately, this helped neither to build up a constructive opposition nor our Parliamentary tradition. Nevertheless, one had to respect Mr JB Jeyaretnam's dogged tenacity to be active in politics at his age." Jeyaretnam's son, Kenneth, eventually assumes leadership of the Reform Party.

Oct 2008: A group from the Nanyang Technological University gathers on Speakers' Corner to protest the censorship of its student newspaper. With a banner that reads "Responsible Press For Students", student speakers tell a group of 70 people that the event is called to stand up for media freedom.

Oct 2008: The High Court orders the Singapore Democratic Party, Dr Chee Soon Juan and Chee Siok Chin, to pay PM Lee Hsien Loong and MM Lee Kuan Yew a total of $610,000 in damages. Judge Belinda Ang says the libel was exacerbated by the Chees' cross-examination which were "meant to discredit, insult, embarrass and humiliate" the two government leaders. The ruling may bankrupt the SDP and force it out of existence, says a statement on the party's website.

Nov 2008: John Tan, the assistant secretary-general of the SDP, is suspended from his position as lecturer at the James Cook University. A letter handed to Tan states that "the Management has received information that the Attorney-General has applied to court for contempt proceedings to be instituted against you. A student has also given some feedback on this matter, expressing some concerns." Tan has been lecturing there for four years.

Nov 2008: The publisher of the Wall Street Journal Asia is found in contempt of court over two editorials and a letter that "implied that the judiciary is subservient to Mr Lee and/or the PAP and is a tool for silencing political dissent." The charges were initiated by Attorney-General Walter Woon who said the articles "impugned the impartiality, integrity and independence of the Singapore Judiciary."

Nov 2008: Three activists who had showed up in court donning t-shirts depicting kangaroos in judges robes during the cross-examination of PM Lee and MM Lee by the Chee siblings are convicted of contempt of court and sentenced to prison. Isrizal Bin Mohamed Isa and Muhammad Shafi'ie each receive 7-day jail sentences, while John Tan a 15-day sentence. The Attorney-General had earlier argued for a harsh penalty, noting that "calling the judicial system a kangaroo court is the worst insult one can hurl against it." The defendants are also each ordered to pay $5,000 in legal costs.

Dec 2008: After his release from prison, Gopalan Nair writes from the United States on his blog that he will be withdrawing all undertakings and apologies made while under Singapore custody, and proceeds to repost all the articles which he had removed while in Singapore. Nair is barred from entering Singapore without approval from authorities.

Jan 2009: In its annual survey of global political rights and civil liberties, Freedom House says Singapore's ranking is downgraded "due to the politically motivated handling of defamation cases, which cast doubt on judicial independence." Its report also notes that "despite his expressed desire for a 'more open society,' Lee Hsien Loong has done little to change the authoritarian political climate."

Jan 2009: Wearing red t-shirts and holding a banner that read 'Stop ill-treatment of Burmese activists', two protesters stood for an hour outside the Ministry of Manpower before being handcuffed and escorted into police vehicles. The two were protesting against the non-renewal of visas to some Myanmar expatriates, whom the Government says are "not welcomed in Singapore". The two Singaporeans, Seelan Palay and Chong Kai Xiong, are being investigated for the offence of criminal trespass.

Jan 2009: A man in his forties is arrested for vandalism after he scribbled "Hi Harry Lee. I love you." on a wall outside Parliament House. The Straits Times reports that uniformed guards were seen running out of Parliament House to wrestle the man to the ground. "Minister Mentor Lee Kuan Yew is called Harry by some of his family and old friends," notes the paper.

Feb 2009: In a written reply to parliament, Home Affairs Minister Wong Kan Seng says 366 people have been detained in the last five years under the Criminal Law (Temporary Provisions) Act, which allows for detention without trial. Wong adds that it is only used as a last resort when a serious crime has been committed and a court prosecution is not possible because witnesses are not willing or afraid to testify in court.

Feb 2009: Four people hold a quiet protest march from Little India to the British High Commission in an appeal for British help to end the war in Sri Lanka. "It was the British colonial government that arranged for Tamils to move to Sri Lanka so it's responsible," says V Thamizhmaraiyan, who led the march. The Straits Times also quotes him as saying that he has the support of many Tamils in Singapore but they did not join the march because they feared arrest.

Feb 2009: In its second incident in two weeks, about 150 retrenched Bangladeshi migrant workers gather in front of Ministry of Manpower to urge the government to give them work and help retrieve overdue pay from previous employers. "We are going to see a lot more of it - they are being shortchanged," says a spokesperson for a migrant workers advocacy group. There are no reports of arrests in both cases.

Mar 2009: Following an earlier ruling that had found the Wall Street Journal guilty of contempt of court, the High Court additionally fines Melanie Kirkpatrick, deputy editor of the Journal's editorial page, $10,000 for the same offence. It also says she must pay the same amount in legal costs. "The public interest in protecting the Singapore judiciary from unwarranted attacks has been adequately served," says the Attorney-General.

Mar 2009: The Government amends the Films Act to allow for certain political films on condition that they do not contain dramatisation, animation, unscripted reality and scenes of illegal activities. A seven-member advisory board is formed to vet such films.

Apr 2009: Parliament passes the Public Order Act, which requires that all "cause-related" demonstrations, including those staged by one person, to seek a police permit. It also contains a new prohibition on the filming of security force operations and actions. Another provision empowers the police, under a so-called "move on" order, to force anyone to leave public areas if their actions are considered "disorderly".

Apr 2009: The Singapore International Film Festival is forced to withdraw six foreign films after censors demanded cuts to five of them that depicted homosexuality and "prolonged and explicit lesbian sex". The sixth film, about Palestinian women imprisoned for suicide bombing-related activities, is disallowed.

Apr 2009: The Government retains the ban on the film 'Zahari's 17 Years', saying that the Minister has not changed his position. The film was banned in 2007 for its alleged "distorted and misleading portrayal" of Said Zahari's detention under the ISA. Its filmmaker Martyn See had resubmitted it to the authorities following the recent amendments to the Films Act.

Apr 2009: More than 100 construction workers from China gather outside the Ministry of Manpower to complain about unpaid wages and cancellation of their work permits. Some workers report that police had warned them they were illegally trespassing on government property. No arrests are reported.

May 2009: A licence for a scheduled seminar by Dr Philip Nitschke, an Australian euthanasia campaigner, is denied by the police on grounds that his talk "may promote the commission of criminal offences in Singapore, of which euthanasia is one". Nitschke earlier insisted that he had no intention of breaking the law in Singapore and that he would not be providing information about effective suicide methods.

May 2009: An Amnesty International report on Singapore states that "defamation suits and restrictive measures continued against opposition activists, human rights defenders, foreign media and conscientious objectors," of whom 26 Jehovah's Witnesses remain imprisoned. The advocacy group also notes "the government eased restrictions on public assembly (in one designated location), but continued imposing restrictions on media and peaceful demonstrations."

Jun 2009: A Christian couple is found guilty of possessing and distributing seditious and undesirable publications to three Muslims, and sentenced to eight weeks jail. Three of the charges come under the Sedition Act and one under the Undesirable Publications Act.

Jun 2009: Refuting Dr Chee Soon Juan's letter to the Washington Post which alleged that rehabilitation under the Internal Security Act in Singapore "comes with beatings and other forms of torture," the Singaporean ambassador to the US says that "terrorist detainees in Singapore undergo a program incorporating psychological, social and religious rehabilitation. There are no beatings or torture. There have been no deaths."

Jun 2009: A scheduled public forum, organised by filmmaker Martyn See, to mark the 22nd anniversary of the "Marxist Conspiracy" arrests under the ISA, is cancelled after See was told by the venue that the police were investigating the event. The event is eventually held in another venue, but not before See wrote to the Minister of Law to rebuff an earlier demand from the police that he make an application for a permit.

Jul 2009 : A magistrate's complaint filed by Chee Siok Chin and John Tan for unlawful detention and selective use of the law by the Singapore Police Force is dismissed by the District Court. In the complaint, Chee stated that during the Asean Summit a year earlier, police had harassed and forced the duo into unmarked vehicles. The judge throws out the complaint, citing a police statement that they were removed in accordance with the Protected Area and Places Act.

Jul 2009: The Board of Film Censors refuses to classify the film 'One Nation Under Lee' on grounds that it contains footages of banned film 'Zahari's 17 Years'. "It is probably the only video submission in BFC's history that has been deemed unclassifiable," says Martyn See, who submitted the film on behalf of its director Seelan Palay, who faces a police probe over the screening of the above film.

Jul 2009: Police install five closed circuit television cameras at the Speakers' Corner as "part of an on-going initiative to enhance security in the neighbourhoods", and that the cameras "do not record audio inputs." A letter published in Today newspaper says "some Singaporeans may be intimitated by the CCTVs from speaking, or even going to listen."

Aug 2009: A copy of the French film Devotee is retained by the Media Development Authority after organisers inserted still frames into sections of the film where the censors had demanded cuts. A censored version is eventually screened to the public after organisers removed the still frames. Two locally made films, Tanjong Rhu and Threshold, are withdrawn just days before its public screening in a festival partly sponsored by the MDA. All three films contain gay themes.

Sept 2009: Singapore's Law Society applies for permission from the courts to initiate disciplinary against US lawyer and blogger Gopalan Nair, with the view to bar him from practising law in Singapore.

Sept 2009: Dr Chee Soon Juan is convicted on two counts of public speaking without a permit and fined $10,000 or ten weeks imprisonment by default. Chee faces a further four charges from offences committed during the run-up to the 2006 elections. Also convicted is activist Yap Keng Ho, who is fined $2,000 and will begin serving a 20-day jail term in default. Chee is granted a stay of execution pending his appeal.

Sept 2009: The Government lifts a four-year ban on the film 'Singapore Rebel', and gives it a M18 rating, which allows those above 18 years old to view it. Its filmmaker Martyn See calls the decision "symbolic", as the film has been viewed more than 400,000 times online. See had resubmitted the film six months earlier.

Oct 2009: Two weeks after the 63-year-old Far Eastern Economic Review announced its impending closure, the Court of Appeal upholds a ruling that the magazine had defamed PM Lee Hsien Loong and MM Lee Kuan Yew in a 2006 article, and that costs and consequential orders will be awarded to the Lees.

Oct 2009: Police arrest a 70-year-old Singaporean who had earlier staged a sit-in protest at an underpass leading to the convention centre of the upcoming APEC Summit meetings. Falaungong practitioner Chua Eng Chwee is detained after he returned to the site from which police had removed him using the "move-on" powers of the Public Order Act.

Oct 2009: Responding to Reporters Without Borders' annual press freedom index that ranks Singapore in 133rd out of 175 countries, Law Minister K. Shanmugam tells the New York State Bar Association that the listing is "quite absurd and divorced from reality", and that Singapore is not "a repressive state" and does not "unfairly target the press".

Nov 2009: The Far Eastern Economic Review and its editor pay over $400,000 to settle the defamation suit that was awarded to PM Lee Hsien Loong and MM Lee Kuan Yew. Court orders show the PM receives $230,000, and the MM, $175,000, in damages and legal costs. Disagreeing with the verdict, the magazine's owners say, "the Court casts significant doubt as to whether Singapore will ever recognise the fair and honest reporting privilege accorded to responsible journalism."

Nov 2009: Despite an appeal from the British High Commission and condemnation from the Commitee To Protect Journalists, British freelance journalist Benjamin Bland's work visa is rejected by the Government, who gave no reasons. "I have covered some sensitive subjects such as rising crime, health care and ageing and business links with Burma. However I steered clear of criticism of Singapore's first family," says Bland.

Dec 2009: In a surprise announcement, the Attorney-General announces the withdrawal of three charges of speaking without permit against Dr Chee Soon Juan. The withdrawn charges would amount to acquittals, said the state prosecutor, who offers no further reason. Chee was originally charged with eight separate counts of the same offence, and had been convicted of four. He had served a prison term for the first, and the remaining are awaiting appeals.

Dec 2009: District Judge Ch'ng Lye Beng fines three leaders of the SDP the maximum amount of $1,000 each for distributing pamphlets without a permit. The judge agrees with the prosecution that distributing anti-government flyers in a group of 5 or more persons is an offence. The group had distributed the flyers during the lead-up to the IMF-World Bank meetings in 2006. The three, Dr Chee Soon Juan, Gandhi Ambalam and Chee Siok Chin, refuse to pay the fine and begin serving one week prison terms.

Jan 2010: In rejecting allegations by Human Rights Watch that Singapore is a "politically repressive state", the government says that "Singapore is a democratic state with a clean and transparent government, whose public officials are held responsible against the highest standards of probity and integrity." The group had also criticised the mandatory death penalty, the ban on street protests and laws permitting caning and detention without trial.

Feb 2010: Ten months after its application, advocacy group Singaporeans For Democracy is gazetted a political association, but not before authorities amended its constitution to prohibit the group from any affiliation with political parties and foreign persons who "interfere in Singapore's domestic politics."

Mar 2010: Dr Chee Soon Juan, Gandhi Ambalam and Chee Siok Chin begin serving another one-week prison term each after being found guilty by District Judge Toh Yung Cheong for attempting to participate in a procession during the WB-IMF meeting in September 2006. Co-defendant Teoh Tian Jing is also found guilty.

Mar 2010: Ten people who were part of a group of 18 who participated in a 'Tak Boleh Tahan' protest outside Parliament House in 2008 are found guilty of taking part in an assembly and procession without a permit. District Judge Chia Wee Kiat metes out fines between $1,800 to $2,000 to each of the convicted, who are granted stays of execution pending appeal. Eight others had earlier pleaded guilty and paid fines.

Mar 2010: The New York Times Co apologises and pays $160,000 in damages to PM Lee Hsien Loong and MM Lee Kuan Yew for an article about Asian political dynasties that was published in the International Herald Tribune. Davinder Singh, the lawyer acting for the Lees, says that the IHT's publisher, editor, and the article's author, Philip Bowring, also agreed to pay damages of $60,000 to PM Lee, and $50,000 each to SM Goh Chok Tong and MM Lee, as well as pay their legal costs. He says the article was in breach of an undertaking made by the IHT and Bowring in 1994.

Mar 2010: In a strongly-worded open letter to PM Lee Hsien Loong, Reporters Without Borders urges the Government to implement media reforms, including ceasing all libel actions and guaranteeing editorial independence to local media. "You have perpetuated your father’s legacy by continuing to harass and intimidate news media," says the letter.

Apr 2010: A landmark decision to acquit five activists who participated in a procession to mark the first anniversary of the IMF-WB protest is overturned by High Court Judge Choo Han Teck. Six months earlier, Judge John Ng acquitted the five, ruling that "the walk which had taken place did not impede or cause any disruption to the flow of vehicular traffic or the movement of pedestrians." Judge Choo orders sentencing to be referred back to Judge John Ng, who in turn sentences them to $500 fine each. All but one choose to serve five-day jail terms.

Apr 2010: Amendments to the Constitution are passed to increase the number of Non-Constituency Members of Parliament (NCMPs) to nine, up from six. NCMPs are offered to losing opposition candidates with the highest percentage of votes, and have restricted voting rights. "This Bill marks another milestone in the constant and progressive evolution of our political system of parliamentary democracy," says Deputy Prime Minister Wong Kan Seng.

Apr 2010: Arab news channel Al Jazeera English is taken off from cable network mio TV, shortly after it aired a story on homeless Singaporeans. Criticising the broadcaster for "propagating falsehoods", Minister Vivian Balakrishnan tells parliament that "this is a clear example where a foreign media has failed to ascertain the facts." Refuting allegations of censorship, the Government quotes a report which stated that Al Jazeera itself had said the decision to drop out of mio TV was a "mutual" one.

Apr 2010: A United Nations official's call for more openness in the public debate of racial issues in Singapore is rebuffed by the Government, which says that "a balance must always be struck between free expression and preservation of racial and religious harmony." Githu Muigai, the UN Special Reporter on racism, made his remarks after spending a week in Singapore at the invitation of the Government.

May 2010: The Straits Times refuses to publish six letters by Dr Chee Soon Juan, demanding that he retract allegations which had casted "serious and unfounded aspersions" on the integrity of the paper. Chee had alleged on the SDP website that the paper unfairly edited his reply to a series of letters in the paper's forum which were critical of him.

May 2010: The National Arts Council cuts the annual grant given to theatre company Wild Rice, which had produced gay-themed plays. In a statement, the council says, "We will not fund projects which are incompatible with the core values promoted by the government and society or disparage the government."

May 2010: Former political detainee Vincent Cheng is barred from a speaking in a history seminar by venue sponsor National Library Board, who contends that Cheng's inclusion by the organiser is not consistent with the forum's original directive. Entitled 'Singapore's History: Who Writes The Script?', the event is organised by the NUS History Society, who apologises to Cheng for the barring.

Jun 2010: The Online Citizen (TOC) reports on its website that its chief editor has been questioned by police over its posting of an anti-government pamphlet, which local press earlier reported were stuffed into letter boxes in two housing estates. Entitled 'The truth that every citizen must know', the pamphlet made allegations about government corruption and exploitation. Local paper Today says its contents, which remains online on TOC, may fall under the Sedition Act.

Jun 2010: A US animal-rights activist is whisked away in a police car after he arrived outside a KFC outlet with the intention to stage a one-man protest in a chicken suit. "I am now in my hotel room. I am under functional house arrest. I will stay in my hotel room under police surveillance until I leave tomorrow," 24-year-old Edward Basse tells newswire by telephone.

Jul 2010: Members of the opposition National Solidarity Party are given verbal warnings by environmental officers on the unlicensed sale of their party's newspaper. A week after the party failed to obtained clarification from authorities, NSP's vice-president Christopher Neo is issued with a summon of $300 for "illegal hawking."

Jul 2010: Filmmaker Martyn See's recording of a public speech by former political prisoner Dr Lim Hock Siew is banned by the Government on account that the film is "against public interest" and that it "undermines public confidence in the Government." The Media Development Authority order See to remove the video from YouTube and his blog. Detained for 19 years, Lim is Singapore's second longest-held ISA detainee. See's other documentary, 'Zahari's 17 Years', remains banned.

Jul 2010: A photographer with a Chinese-language daily who was taking pictures of floods is handcuffed by police and removed from the area after he allegedly ignored police warnings to leave. In response, Environmental Minister Yaacob Ibrahim tells parliament that there is no policy that prohibits the taking of flood pictures. The Government has been under pressure to alleviate frequent floods caused by monsoon rains.

Jul 2010: British author Alan Shadrake is arrested in his hotel, a day after he launched a book alleging double standards in Singapore's use of the death penalty. The police say in a statement that Shadrake will be investigated for alleged criminal defamation and contempt of court. The book, entitled 'Once a Jolly Hangman: Singapore Justice in the Dock,' is not banned, says the Media Development Authority, who had filed the police complaint.

Jul 2010: "Nuns Go Wild!", a play which was scheduled as part of the Short+Sweet Theatre Festival at the Arts House, has its title changed to "Good Girls" after the venue objected to the references to nuns. The performance is eventually allowed after the playwright changed the main characters to convent schoolgirls.

Aug 2010: The SDP reports on their website that their application for renewal of their newspaper permit was delayed for three months by the Government. As the "communication lifeline with voters in the constituencies and a means for the party to raise funds," the delay "severely disrupted our campaign plans", says the party. The law mandates that newspaper licences are renewable yearly.

Aug 2010: Police arrest a Singaporean man after he posted on Facebook urging people to "burn" a cabinet minister. In a statement, police say the arrest is "in connection with investigations into offences related to incitement of violence". Abdul Malik Ghazali, 27, who posted a series of criticisms on how the government was hosting the inaugural Youth Olympic Games, says his comment was a "metaphor". He is eventually issued a warning.

Aug 2010: A police serviceman who criticised the actions of his fellow officers in his blog is interrogated for an hour by the police. 26-year-old Abdillah Zamzuri had written on his blog that the police officer who handcuffed a press photographer had "acted stupidly" and that the police should be sued. He is being investigated for the offence of "prejudice to the conduct of good order and discipline".

Aug 2010 : Theatre group Drama Box is denied an outdoor licence to stage a forum theatre piece involving themes of homosexuality, sex education and religious radicalisation. The Media Development Authority, which gave the play an advisory for mature content (16 years and above), advises that the group move the performance indoors.

Sep 2010 : Students at the Nanyang Techological University are informed that those who create webpages or blogs containing information regarding politics and religion must acquire licences from the Government and the university's written approval. Under the Broadcasting Act, registration is required for websites deemed by the authorities to be propagating political or religious issues relating to Singapore. Local paper Today notes the last time a website was told to register as a political site was in 2001.

Sep 2010: A call by a government-appointed panel to liberalise parts of its censorship regime, such as ending a symbolic 100-website ban and easing rules on distributing R-rated films, is rejected by the government. "We should move with, rather than ahead of, society," says Minister Lui Tuck Yew, who adds that the 100-website ban "serves as a reminder that there is a significant body of material on the internet that is unsavoury and unedifying."

Oct 2010 : After tabloid daily The New Paper speculated that medical doctor Joseph Ong is the owner of popular anti-government website Temasek Review, government investment firm Temasek Holdings writes to him demanding that the site stop using "the good name" of Temasek Review. While Dr Ong denies any links with the website, the site's owners temporarily changes its name to 'New Temasek Review', but has since reverted to its original name, and continues to operate under its anonymous owners.

Nov 2010 : The Government rejects an application by human rights advocacy group Maruah to be registered as a society, but instead gazettes it as a political association, which would bar the group from a host of activities, such as receiving foreign funds and letting foreigners take part in its events. Maruah has been active as a Singapore representative in the Asean Human Rights Mechanism.

Nov 2010: In the stiffest sentence imposed for contempt of court, 76-year-old British author Alan Shadrake is sentenced to six weeks in prison and fined $20,000 by High Court Judge Quentin Loh, who says the book, 'Once a Jolly Hangman: Singapore's Justice in the Dock,' contains "selective background of truths and half-truths, and sometimes outright falsehoods." A stay of execution is granted pending Shadrake's appeal.

Dec 2010: In response to WikiLeaks' release of secret US diplomatic cables, the Government says their actions are "damaging". "It is critical to protect the confidentiality of diplomatic and official correspondence, which is why Singapore has the Officials Secret Act," says the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Leaked cables from Singapore had contained unflattering remarks on regional governments made by MM Lee Kuan Yew and Singapore diplomats.

Dec 2010: Citing "law and order considerations", police reject an application for a proposed march by Singaporeans For Democracy to mark International Human Rights Day. The march was scheduled to start at Speakers' Corner and end at Parliament House, less than one kilometre away. Further to an appeal by SFD, the police advise the political association "to hold your march at the Speakers' Corner instead."

Dec 2010: In reply to a query, the Media Development Authority says the government will adopt a "light-touch approach" for the internet and will not require websites to submit their uploaded videos for vetting. Filmmaker Martyn See made the inquiry after reading a Straits Times report on videos uploaded by political parties, including those from the PAP.

Dec 2010: Two rights groups are denied permits to conduct activities aimed at commemorating International Migrants Day. A proposed vehicle procession and a flyer distribution exercise to raise awareness about the treatment of foreign workers are rejected by the police, who advise the applicants "to hold their activities within the confines of the Speakers' Corner instead."

Jan 2011: A disciplinary tribunal appointed by the Chief Justice finds US lawyer Gopalan Nair guilty of five charges of contempt of court and misconduct. The Law Society of Singapore had initiated charges against Nair for his blog postings and for disorderly behaviour towards police officers while awaiting trial for his conviction in 2008. The tribunal says Nair will be permitted to re-enter Singapore to face charges.

Jan 2011: PM Lee Hsien Loong gazettes popular news portal The Online Citizen (TOC) a political association, even though the website has not applied to be registered. The move comes shortly after the site organised a public forum featuring leaders of the opposition parties. A government statement says TOC "has the potential to influence the opinions of its readership and shape political outcomes in Singapore" and "it is therefore necessary to ensure that it is not funded by foreign elements or sources". Law and Home Affairs Minsiter K. Shanmugam tells parliament that TOC is "not a passive website" but adds that it "will not hinder its existing activities, nor impede its freedom of expression".

Jan 2011: A performance art piece entitled 'Choices, Chances' that would have featured references to the death penalty is disallowed by the Media Development Authority, who objected to the use of a set of dice in the performance, alleging it would imply an unfair judicial process. In place of the ban, artist Seelan Palay verbally describes his performance to the audience.

Jan 2011: Three members of Singaporeans For Democracy are investigated over the sale of 12 copies of the book 'Once A Jolly Hangman: Singapore Justice in the Dock' at a human rights film screening. Police say the three are being questioned on possible charges of distributing defamatory material. The book has not been banned by authorities and author Alan Shadrake's appeal against his conviction is still pending.

Jan 2011: Police write to The Online Citizen to ask that they apply for three sets of permits to hold a proposed party to mark the gazetting of their site. The licenses required are the Public Entertainment Licence, the House-to-House and Street Collections Licence, and a notification to conduct a lucky draw under the House Gaming Rules. In response, TOC elects to bypass the rules by conducting the party as a private, invitation-only function.

Jan 2011: Dr Chee Soon Juan's appeal against four convictions for speaking without permit is dismissed by High Court Judge Steven Chong, who imposes a $20,000 fine or 20-week imprisonment in default. The four convictions are part of eight charges filed against Chee for offences committed during the run-up to the elections in 2006. Chee eventually escapes the prison term after he paid the fine, raised through an online donation appeal.

Feb 2011: A historic lawsuit brought against the Government by a former political prisoner for alleged torture is thrown out of court, after the Attorney-General said it was frivolous, vexatious and an abuse of court process. 77-year-old Michael Fernandez, a former union leader who was detained under the ISA from 1964 to 1973, had alleged that he was force-fed, manhandled, deprived of sleep, and made to live in conditions that were "not humanely habitable". A separate lawsuit alleging unlawful detention is pending.

Feb 2011: The Board of Film Censors restricts Oscar-nominated film 'The Kids Are Alright' by rating it R21 and limiting its release to one single print. "The film normalises a homosexual family unit and has exceeded the film classification guidelines which states that 'Films that promote or normalise a homosexual lifestyle cannot be allowed'," says a letter from the Board, which adds that it is already a "concession" that the film is allowed at all.

Feb 2011: High Court Judge Woo Bih Li dismisses appeals by nine defendants, mostly from the SDP, against three sets of convictions all involving public assemblies and processions from 2006 to 2008. The appellants had asked the judge to look into the unconstitutionality of the government's ban on public assemblies and processions. All nine had earlier served the sentences, including payment of fines and prison terms.

Feb 2011: The Government submits its first human rights report to the United Nations, highlighting its achievement in health, housing and education. Refuting alleged restrictions on civil and political liberties, it says "no person has ever been detained for engaging in lawful political activities". Its use of the death penalty is justified as "a criminal justice issue", and the ISA as a "preventive" measure. Eight civil society groups had earlier submitted reports, all as part of a UN peer review process called the Universal Periodic Review.

Mar 2011: Lawyer Chia Ti Lik, the leader of newly-formed opposition party Socialist Front, is found guilty on charges of professional misconduct brought against him by the Law Society. While acting as defence counsel for opposition activists, Chia had alleged on his blog that the cases were politically motivated, which the disciplinary tribunal said cast "doubt on the integrity of the judiciary and judicial processes". Chia faces a fine, and is also ordered to pay legal costs of $3,000. The penalties will not affect his eligibility to contest the elections.

Mar 2011 : The High Court dismissed an appeal for a constitutional challenge against Section 377A of the Penal Code, which makes "gross indecency" between two men an offence punishable by up to two years' imprisonment. Human rights lawyer M. Ravi had filed the challenge following his client's conviction for a sexual act in a public toilet in 2010. Speaking in Parliament in 2007, PM Lee Hsien Loong had said, "We do not harass gays. The Government does not act as moral policemen. And we do not proactively enforce section 377A on them."

Mar 2011: An art installation displayed in the Singapore Art Museum as part of the Singapore Biennale has some of its items removed without the consent of the artist. Explaining the removal of gay pornographic magazines in the installation work by British artist Simon Fujiwara, museum director Tan Boon Hui says some audience "may not appreciate seeing such material in full view." A lawyer quoted in the Straits Times says the exhibition of obscene material may fall under the Undesirable Publications Act, which carries a maximum sentence of $10,000 fine or a two-year imprisonment.

2011 (General Elections): A year before elections, PM Lee Hsien Loong announced a "24-hour cooling-off" before polling day, stating that no election campaigning and "advertising" will be allowed except for "news" from government licensed organizations and sanctioned political party broadcasts.

In its annual budget statement, the Government announces a $3.2 billion "Grow and Share" package in which most adult Singaporean will receive between $600 to $800 each in "cash incentives".

In its first major revision since 2001, the Government redraws electoral boundaries by dissolving constituencies and creating new wards. The Group Representative Constituency (GRC) of Aljunied loses nine parcels of land to neighbouring wards, prompting accusations of gerrymandering from the Workers' Party.

The Elections Department eases the ban on election videos and online campaigning, but requires that all activities to be held at the Speakers' Corner during the election period be sanctioned by the police.

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